"At the turn of the last century, analytical chemistry was revolutionized with the development of a separation method that has evolved into a whole family of analytical techniques that are applicable to a huge variety of mixtures of solids, liquids, and vapors, over a large temperature range, whether or not they are soluble in solvents. This family is collectively known as chromatography." (Citation 14)

"Chromatography is used extensively in forensics, from analyzing body fluids for the presence of illicit drugs, to fiber analysis, blood analysis from a crime scene, and at airports to detect residue from explosives." (Citation 17)

 Video explaining part of a gas chromatography machine. (Multimedia 5)

Video explaining how electrophoresis is performed. (Multimedia 6


"Gel Electrophoresis is the process in which molecules (such as proteins, DNA, or RNA fragments) can be separated according to size and electrical charge by applying an electric current to them. The current forces the molecules through pores in a thin layer of gel, a firm jelly-like substance. The gel can be made so that its pores are just the right dimensions for separating molecules within a specific range of sizes and shapes. Smaller fragments usually travel further than large ones." (Citation 18)


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